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  1. New West Nile Virus Vaccine

    New West Nile Virus Vaccines for Horses Approved by: Kimberly S. Brown, Editor November 23 2009, Article # 15334 Print Email Add to Favorites RSS ShareThis New equine West Nile virus vaccines have been approved by the USDA. The vaccine line, called Vetera, is manufactured by Boehringer-Ingelheim, a privately held pharmaceutical company. The Vetera line of West Nile virus vaccines "is the first new approach to a killed West Nile virus vaccine since 2001," stated Bob Stenbom, DVM, associate director of Equine Professional Services for Boehringer-Ingelheim. There are three new vaccines in the Vetera West Nile virus line. The first is a monovalent that contains only a vaccine against West Nile virus. The second combines West Nile virus vaccine with Eastern equine encephalitis (EEE), Western equine encephalitis (WEE), and tetanus. The third vaccine combines all of the aforementioned plus Venezuelan equine encephalitis (VEE). "We have color-coded the packaging and the vaccine bottles to help veterinarians quickly pick the correct vaccine from their supply," said Marion Tittle, senior brand manager for equine. The technology used to make the new Vetera line of vaccines is unique in several ways. Stenbom noted that Vetera uses a different strain of the West Nile virus. "We've seen a lot of changes in the genetic makeup (of the virus) since West Nile virus first entered this country in 1999," he noted. "The original strain of WNV (NY99) had a slow transmission. Then we saw a more rapid transmission as the virus made its way down the East Coast and through Florida and across the country. Genetic research since that time has shown it was a new strain (WN02) that did a much better job infecting mosquitoes and surviving in the environment. Vetera WNV vaccines incorporate an equine origin WNV strain (E159), representative of the more recent WNV strains impacting horses today." He said all other West Nile virus vaccines on the U.S. market are based on the NY99 strain. The second unique technology used in creating the Vetera line of vaccines is Ultrafil purification technique. "You will hear a lot about this in the future," stated Stenbom. "Efficacy with few post-vaccination reactions is the goal of every vaccine. Extraneous proteins in vaccines from cell cultures and nutrients used in cell culture (used to grow the initial virus to make the vaccine) may cause problems with systemic vaccination reactions. Those reactions are not always caused by the desired vaccine components." "Extraneous proteins should be filtered out as completely as possible from the finished vaccine to allow the immune system to remain 'undistracted' by irrelevant antigens," said Stenbom. "Ultrafil purification is a patent-pending process that allows optimal antigen loads in minimal dosage volumes and decreases the risk of post-vaccination reactions." The third unique technology used in manufacturing Vetera is the Carbimmune adjuvant system that was developed about 10 years ago when Boehringer-Ingelheim used it in creating Calvenza equine influenza vaccines. Adjuvants enhance the immune response to vaccine antigens. "Carbimmune adjuvant contains no sensitizing material of plant or animal origins," noted Stenbom. "It's a safe, flexible adjuvant system that is effective with a variety of antigens." Stenbom explained that Carbimmune has the potential "to elicit higher levels of humoral antibody and cellular immunity than conventional aluminum hydroxide-based adjuvant systems." He said Carbimmune acts like a sponge, so the antigens are dispersed on the surface and are drawn into the matrix of the molecule. The antigens on the surface of the Carbimmune matrix are available immediately when administered to give rapid onset of immunity. Then the "trapped" antigens deeper in the matrix offer a slow release of antigen that provide a longer duration of immunity. The final piece of technology employed in the new Vetera vaccine line was how the vaccine was challenged with the intrathecal challenge model. "Intrathecal challenge is considered to be the 'gold standard' for West Nile virus efficacy studies and the most aggressive challenge model," stated Stenbom. The company noted that, according to information published by the American Association of Equine Practitioners in their "Guidelines for the Vaccination of Horses," the mosquito and needle challenge were the two models used in early West Nile virus studies. These methods resulted in only 10% of unvaccinated (control) horses showing signs of clinical disease when challenged. More recently, however, the intrathecal challenge model has been used, resulting in 90% to 100% of unvaccinated control horses developing grave signs of encephalomyelitis. The name of the vaccines were derived because Boehringer-Ingelheim only sells vaccines to veterinarians (Vet-) and this new approach to creating equine vaccines launches a new era (-era) "in how equine vaccines should be made," Tittle said. For more information ask your veterinarian or visit Vetera-Vaccines.com.
  2. New West Nile Virus Vaccine

    Merial Introduces Next Generation Equine West Nile Virus Vaccine by: Press Release January 06 2004, Article # 4887 Print Email Add to Favorites RSS ShareThis Merial announced today the release of a new equine vaccine--RECOMBITEK Equine West Nile Virus (WNV) vaccine. The recent USDA approval of RECOMBITEK Equine West Nile Virus vaccine offers veterinarians a first-of-its-kind product backed by cutting-edge science to offer fast-acting and long-lasting protection from the often deadly WNV. (Click here for an earlier article on the vaccine.) "The RECOMBITEK West Nile Virus vaccine uses recombinant DNA technology to stimulate a fast, multifaceted and long-lasting immune response proven by natural mosquito challenge of West Nile virus," says Mike Murray, DVM, MS, Merial Equine Technical Director for Strategic Development. "The fast-acting immune response was demonstrated in a controlled trial that showed horses were protected from viremia caused by West Nile virus infection when challenged as early as two weeks after completion of the two-vaccination series." The benefits of recombinant vaccine technology include a fast, multifaceted (humoral and cell-mediated) immune response, targeted antigen presentation, and a level of safety inherent to this technology due to the fact that there is no possibility of live virus replication. As a leader in recombinant DNA technology, Merial manufactures and markets 11 of the 12 companion animal and equine vaccines that use recombinant DNA technology worldwide, including RECOMBITEK vaccines for dogs, PUREVAX for cats, and in Europe, PROTEQFLU, which induces rapid and long-lasting immunity to equine influenza. "Recombinant technology vaccines have an intrinsic safety factor because animals receiving the recombinant vaccine are never exposed to the disease-producing organism," Murray says. In 2002, WNV exploded throughout the U.S. equine population, resulting in 15,257 documented cases. The USDA estimates a mortality rate of approximately one third* of horses showing clinical signs of WNV disease. Although the total number of cases in the United States declined in 2003, WNV presented itself in various geographic regions, including a five-fold increase in clinical cases reported in the Mid-Atlantic states, demonstrating that this disease remains dangerous and unpredictable. Merial is a world leading innovation-driven animal health company, providing a comprehensive range of products to enhance the health, well-being, and performance of a wide range of animal species. Merial operates in more than 150 countries worldwide. Its 2002 sales were in excess of $1.7 billion. Merial Limited is a joint venture between Merck & Co., Inc., and Aventis, S.A. For more information, please see www.merial.com. *aphis.usda.gov web site, "Questions & Answers About West Nile Virus" (March 2003), Accessed Dec. 16, 2003, at: www.aphis.usda.gov/lpa/pubs/fsheet_faq_notice/faq_ahwnv.html.
  3. New West Nile Virus Vaccine

    Single-Dose WNV Booster Effective for Pregnant Mares (AAEP 2009) by: Christy West February 01 2010, Article # 15732 Print Email Add to Favorites RSS ShareThis When we only had one vaccine for West Nile virus (WNV) in horses, vaccination was quite simple. Then when different types of vaccines came along, the waters got a little muddier, especially for pregnant mares in which breeders feared risking not one, but two equine lives with new vaccine technologies. At the 2009 American Association of Equine Practitioners Convention, held Dec. 5-9 in Las Vegas, Nev., a study discussed the efficacy of using a chimera West Nile virus vaccine to booster immunity in mares previously immunized against West Nile virus. The chimera vaccine used in the study, Prevenile, is made by replacing structural genes of the human yellow fever vaccine virus with those of the West Nile virus. The immune system acts against the West Nile virus proteins just like in a wild-type infection, but the chimera can safely replicate in the horse, producing a strong, protective immune response. "When reviewing the literature, there was no clear evidence that this type of vaccine would be efficacious to booster pregnant mares (although in previous vaccine licensure studies, no adverse events were reported in pregnant mares)," said presenter Joseph Manning, DVM, of Equine Sports Medicine in Weatherford, Texas. Lead author Cynthia V. Gutierrez, DVM, equine technical services veterinarian for Intervet/Schering-Plough Animal Health, reported the study had three objectives: ?To see if pregnant mares with low antibody levels (titers) had at least a four-fold increase in these levels after boostering; ?To see if high-titer mares had antivector immunity to this modified-live vaccine (to see if circulating antibodies inactivated the vaccine); and ?To confirm that this vaccine can be used as a pre-partum vaccine to induce colostral immunity. The researchers boostered 81 previously vaccinated mares four to eight weeks before foaling with one dose of the chimera vaccine, according to the label instructions. After 14 days the mares all showed a four- to eight-fold increase in antibody titers, thus the vaccine was not inactivated and the boosted immunity would also increase colostral immunity (immunoglobulins in the mare's first milk or colostrum, which will help protect the foal against the disease). No adverse events were seen as a result of vaccination, and all mares delivered live foals. "The take-home message is that vaccinating primed pre-partum broodmares with a single dose of a West Nile virus chimeric vaccine does produce a titer rise (increased immune response) and can be used to boost colostral antibodies," the authors summarized.
  4. An Uncommon Montana Sight

    Beautiful pictures! I just took out a couple riding last Monday and the man used to be stationed in Africa-cant remember where? But he said camels were sold for food there and "cheap" to buy.
  5. Corn Oil = Gi Inflammation

    By: Karen Briggs, Feed specialist and equine nutritionist Gary Potter, PhD, of Texas A & M University, is a leading equine nutrition researcher "Fat is easily metabolized by horses, despite the fact that their digestive systems (best adapted for the processing of fiber) didn't evolve to deal with it. Studies have shown that as much as 20% overall fat in the diet is well tolerated by horses, with no ill effects noted. Indeed, fat might well be easier for horses to digest than carbohydrates, as it has been demonstrated that a fat-supplemented diet, unlike a high-carbohydrate diet, has no effect on the pH of the cecum (and thus no detrimental effect on the beneficial microflora inhabiting the large intestine). Fat appears to be absorbed almost exclusively in the small intestine". "Another interesting fat digestion fact is that horses can utilize fats well despite the fact that they have no gall bladder. In most mammals, the gall bladder excretes bile and salts to help break down fats, but in horses, the liver seems to take over that function, with no fat digestion problems that research has been able to identify". Is Dietary Fat Really Healthy? by: Ray Geor, BVSc, PhD, Dipl. ACVIM "In the last decade or so, there has been increasing use of supplemental vegetable oil in horse diets. Corn and soya oils are the most commonly used, although canola, linseed, or flaxseed oils can also be safely fed to horses. Flaxseed and linseed oils are both produced from flaxseed; flaxseed oil is cold-pressed whereas linseed oil is extracted under high temperature using petroleum-based solvents. Thus, flaxseed oil is a more "natural" feed ingredient, although rations with 4-8% linseed oil or flaxseed oil have been fed to horses without apparent problems". "The horse's digestive system can manage reasonably large quantities of dietary fat, although there can be digestive upsets (diarrhea) if large amounts of oil are suddenly added to the diet. In general, the quantity of oil added to the diet should be increased gradually over a two- to three-week period. " "One of the main nutritional advantages of fat is its energy density. Vegetable oils have about three times as much digestible energy (DE) as oats and 2.5 times as much as corn. This feature is especially useful when managing a hard keeper or sick horse--adding fat can result in a substantial increase in caloric intake without requiring the horse to consume more food. The horse also can use fat energy in an efficient manner. When a typical hay and grain diet is fed, a horse is only able to utilize 50-60% of the energy in these feedstuffs. On the other hand, horses can utilize more than 90% of the energy contained in a vegetable oil since more of the energy is available to the horse. This is one reason why fat supplementation is useful for fattening thin animals or helping to meet the very high-energy requirements of horses in heavy training." "Healthy or Not? To evaluate whether or not dietary fat is "healthy," we need to consider the impact of fat on body functions. The first consideration is gastrointestinal function, particularly in performance horses requiring large amounts of high-energy feeds for maintenance of body condition. Traditionally, heavy grain feeding was used to meet these energy requirements. The major concern with this approach is an increased risk of gastrointestinal problems--with large grain intakes (more than 11-15 pounds, or 5-7 kg, per day for a 1,100-pound, or 500-kg, horse) some of the grain passes undigested into the large intestine, where it ferments. Excessive grain fermentation can disrupt the normal microbial population of the hindgut and predispose the horse to colic and other digestive upsets. Adding fat (and a highly digestible fiber source such as beet pulp) to the ration allows for a substantial reduction in the quantity of grain (and starch) in the diet. This approach can help stabilize the hindgut environment and prevent digestive disturbances. Score 1 for fat. A higher-fat diet also might favorably alter behavior. Compared to a traditional hay and cereal grain diet, a diet containing a combination of corn oil and soy lecithin has been shown to reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity to noise and sudden visual stimuli.1 Clinical experience also indicates that many horses exhibit a calmer disposition--being less hot-headed--when fed a higher-fat ration compared to a more traditional starch- and sugar-based diet. Score 2 for fat. Speaking of hot-headed horses, it is well known that a nervous temperament is one of the factors contributing to tying-up episodes in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER), a condition most common in racing Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds. It is also well established that higher-fat and -fiber feeds (compared to a grain-based ration) help in the management of horses with RER, possibly because of the "calming effect" of the higher fat diet. Score 3 for fat. A higher-fat, lower-starch and -sugar diet is also crucial in the management of horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), another form of chronic tying-up. PSSM is associated with abnormal storage of excess glycogen (the body's storage form of glucose) in skeletal muscle, likely because these horses are more sensitive to the effects of insulin, the hormone responsible for the clearance of glucose from the bloodstream. Therefore, the starches present in grain "fuel the fire" by providing the extra glucose necessary for the synthesis of glycogen in muscle. Grain should be removed from the diets of horses with PSSM (and from the diets of draft-breed horses with a similar condition called equine polysaccharide myopathy, or EPSM). An increase in fat intake, together with the restriction in dietary starch and sugar, is also important in the management of horses with PSSM or EPSM, because it can provide the calories normally provided by the grains without stimulating insulin release. Score 4 for fat. Finally, additional oil in the diet might benefit skin and hoof appearance. Clinically, the coat and hooves take on a shiny, healthy look when horses are fed a fat-supplemented diet. Another point for fat. Based on our current understanding, there is little to indicate that feeding fat to horses is harmful. In fact, the weight of evidence suggests that a higher-fat diet is a much healthier approach than a more traditional high-grain diet. However, there are no data on the long-term effects of feeding rations containing over 7-10% fat to horses. It is currently recommended to limit the total fat intake to 10% or less". "So, the answer is that yes, fat is safe to feed if done so within certain parameters. Start adding fat slowly to the diet to avoid digestive upset. Increase vitamin E when increasing fat. Use vegetable sources and not animal sources. Beware of adding too much, even of a good thing. "
  6. Joint Supplement Help

    "One of the oldest joint supplements on the market is Cosequin, which contains low molecular weight chondroitin sulfate, glucosamine hydrochloride, and manganese ascorbate. McIlwraith commented that this company was one of the few that actually had conducted research on its product, and that other companies have often "borrowed" that data and applied it to their own products, which might or might not have the same ingredients". "Available on the company's website (www.cosequin.com) are the results of five studies that showed positive effects of Cosequin. The studies using live horses found that Cosequin supplementation was safe and effective, but the number of horses used in these studies was small. In addition, one study was not blinded or controlled. They also have in vitro studies that suggested the combination of glucosamine and chondroitin sulfate complemented one another and was more beneficial than either compound alone".
  7. How Much Hay

    When Your Horse Thinks He's a Termite... by: Sarah Ralston, VMD, PhD, Dipl. ACVN "Wood chewing increases if the horses' access to forage is limited; if they have inadequate feed and/or fiber in their rations; in cold, wet weather; or if the horses are confined and bored. Has the horses' quality of pasture, type of hay, or activity level changed? " "Mineral imbalances are not known to affect wood chewing, though a salt deficit will increase licking and/or chewing of abnormal substances in the horse's attempt to meet his salt needs".
  8. How Much Hay

    Hay Alternatives for Horses by: Press Release "Adverse summer grass growing or harvesting conditions or excessively long, cold winter weather can make it difficult to find or afford horse hay. These problems might tempt horse owners to feed their horses an all-concentrate diet. However, horse owners should remember a diet without roughage can be detrimental to the horse. A constant fiber source is needed to maintain the "good" bacteria in the horse's hindgut which break down plant fibers to provide energy for the horse". "The bulk provided by fiber keeps the horse's digestive tract functioning smoothly, decreasing incidence of colic. Horses with adequate fiber exhibit less behavioral problems, such as wood chewing and stall walking, than horses without enough fiber in the diet. The minimum daily amount of long roughage (hay or pasture) needed by the horse is 1 pound of roughage per one hundred pounds of body weight". "There are feeds other than hay or pasture that can provide roughage for the horse. These feeds are not always more cost-effective than hays, but they usually can be purchased when hay is not readily available. Although many of these feeds can substitute for hay, it is more beneficial to maintain the minimum roughage requirement with hay or pasture and use these feeds to boost the amount of roughage in the horse's diet". "Complete feeds are pelleted feeds that have ground hay (usually alfalfa) combined in the pellet. They increase the fiber content of the diet but do not provide the bulk necessary to keep the horse's digestive tract functioning smoothly". "Alfalfa pellets are similar to complete feeds. They provide fiber but do not provide the needed bulk. However, alfalfa cubes are long fiber hay pressed into cubes. Cubes will give the horse needed bulk in its intestines. There have been infrequent reports of horses choking on the large cubes, but there is probably no danger for the normal horse". "Silage and haylage can be fed to horses, and they provide fiber and bulk. However, these feeds can result in digestive problems because of the possible presence of molds and other toxic substances. Only high quality silage or haylage should be fed to horses. It might take horses some time to become accustomed to the taste of silage or haylage. Up to one half of the horse's hay ration can be replaced with silage. Usually one pound of hay is equivalent to three pounds of silage on a dry matter basis". "HorseHage is a patented procedure for vacuum packaging high-moisture hay. The product was developed in England and is very popular with horse owners there. It is being marketed in the United States and provides bulk to the diet. It also can be directly substituted for hay in the diet". "Shredded sugar beet pulp is a by-product of the sugar beet industry and is a very popular horse feed in some areas of the United States. It is palatable, relatively high in digestible energy and a good source of fiber and bulk. Beet pulp comes in a dry flake form. When wet, it absorbs tremendous amounts of water, swelling to three to four times its original bulk. Therefore, to prevent serious colic, bulk beet pulp should be soaked in water for 8 to 12 hours before feeding it to horses. It also should be limited to 25% of the ration". "Citrus pulp is the pulp and residue of fruit processed for juice. The palatability and feeding value varies with the processing conditions, but it can provide bulk to the diet. It is recommended that citrus pulp be limited to 25% of the ration". "Grain hulls, such as cottonseed hulls, peanut hulls, oat hulls and rice mill feed, can increase bulk in the horse's diet. Generally, these feed by-products are not extremely palatable to horses and are low in nutritive value. Peanut hulls especially are susceptible to aflatoxins, which may be poisonous to horses. Hulls should be limited to 10% of the total ration". "Soybean hulls are the filmy skin covering the bean. Unlike the true grain hulls mentioned above, soy hulls are slightly lower than oats in terms of nutritional value. Also, because of their small size, they may not provide the bulk needed by the horse's digestive tract. Soy hulls often are pelleted and the unpelleted, loose soy hulls are not recommended because they are hard for most horse owners to handle and tend to blow around in the feeder. Soy hulls are not very palatable to horses, but most horses will eat them mixed with a sweet feed. Limit them to about 50% of the diet, and remember that mixing them into a balanced sweet feed destroys the nutritional balance of the sweet feed. This should not be a serious problem for a mature horse at maintenance if you are just feeding it for a short time, such as to meet its energy needs during winter". "Ground corn cobs are low in nutritive value but provide a good source of bulk in the horse's diet when fed coarsely ground". "Straw from cereal grains are lower in nutritive value than hays, but they can be used in horse diets to provide bulk. Straw should be limited to 10% of the total ration. Chaff is a mixture of chopped straw and molasses. Like straw, it is a good source of bulk and should be limited to about 10% of the total ration". "Many of these feeds are low in nutritive value. Horse owners should realize that they might have to increase the amount of concentrate feed to maintain the horse's body weight when these feeds are substituted for hay. Because of the generally low nutritive value, these feeds should be fed as a small proportion of the total diet. High levels may prevent the horse from eating enough of the ration to meet its nutrient needs. Before using a new feedstuff, horse owners should consult with their county Extension agent or with horsemen experienced with using the feed. As always, new feeds should be gradually introduced to a horse's diet to reduce the possibility of colic or laminitis.--Courtesy Auburn University, Auburn, Ala".
  9. How Much Hay

    "How much to feed? As a rough guideline, horses should consume 1% to 2% of their bodyweight each day in forage products--at least 50% of their total diets under all but the most extreme exercise programs. Though all of us prefer to feed by "eyeballing" amounts, the weight and size of a flake of hay can vary so much that it is worth weighing the flakes to determine how close you are to these guidelines. This can be done very simply by standing on a bathroom scale, with and without the flake of hay, and subtracting the difference". "When feeding hay, remember that, at heart, horses are grazing animals, programmed to chew on stemmy, fibrous plants for at least 12 hours a day. That urge to chew can be almost as compelling as a rodent's, so hay fulfills two functions in your barn: It provides nutrients (and keeps the digestive system in good health), but it also keeps horses busy (and thus not chewing the wood fences, stall doors, or their neighbors' tails!). An almost constant supply of small amounts of hay is far more beneficial than one or two large feedings a day because it mimics the horse's natural grazing habits. Make lots of good-quality hay the basis of your horses' diets, and you'll reap the benefits in terms of both health and contentment".
  10. Best Kind Of Oil To Feed?

    Is Dietary Fat Really Healthy? Healthy or Not? "To evaluate whether or not dietary fat is "healthy," we need to consider the impact of fat on body functions. The first consideration is gastrointestinal function, particularly in performance horses requiring large amounts of high-energy feeds for maintenance of body condition. Traditionally, heavy grain feeding was used to meet these energy requirements. The major concern with this approach is an increased risk of gastrointestinal problems--with large grain intakes (more than 11-15 pounds, or 5-7 kg, per day for a 1,100-pound, or 500-kg, horse) some of the grain passes undigested into the large intestine, where it ferments. Excessive grain fermentation can disrupt the normal microbial population of the hindgut and predispose the horse to colic and other digestive upsets". "Adding fat (and a highly digestible fiber source such as beet pulp) to the ration allows for a substantial reduction in the quantity of grain (and starch) in the diet. This approach can help stabilize the hindgut environment and prevent digestive disturbances. Score 1 for fat. A higher-fat diet also might favorably alter behavior. Compared to a traditional hay and cereal grain diet, a diet containing a combination of corn oil and soy lecithin has been shown to reduce spontaneous activity and reactivity to noise and sudden visual stimuli.1 Clinical experience also indicates that many horses exhibit a calmer disposition--being less hot-headed--when fed a higher-fat ration compared to a more traditional starch- and sugar-based diet. Score 2 for fat. Speaking of hot-headed horses, it is well known that a nervous temperament is one of the factors contributing to tying-up episodes in horses with recurrent exertional rhabdomyolysis (RER), a condition most common in racing Thoroughbreds and Standardbreds. It is also well established that higher-fat and -fiber feeds (compared to a grain-based ration) help in the management of horses with RER, possibly because of the "calming effect" of the higher fat diet. Score 3 for fat. A higher-fat, lower-starch and -sugar diet is also crucial in the management of horses with polysaccharide storage myopathy (PSSM), another form of chronic tying-up. PSSM is associated with abnormal storage of excess glycogen (the body's storage form of glucose) in skeletal muscle, likely because these horses are more sensitive to the effects of insulin, the hormone responsible for the clearance of glucose from the bloodstream. Therefore, the starches present in grain "fuel the fire" by providing the extra glucose necessary for the synthesis of glycogen in muscle. Grain should be removed from the diets of horses with PSSM (and from the diets of draft-breed horses with a similar condition called equine polysaccharide myopathy, or EPSM). An increase in fat intake, together with the restriction in dietary starch and sugar, is also important in the management of horses with PSSM or EPSM, because it can provide the calories normally provided by the grains without stimulating insulin release. Score 4 for fat. Finally, additional oil in the diet might benefit skin and hoof appearance. Clinically, the coat and hooves take on a shiny, healthy look when horses are fed a fat-supplemented diet. Another point for fat. Based on our current understanding, there is little to indicate that feeding fat to horses is harmful. In fact, the weight of evidence suggests that a higher-fat diet is a much healthier approach than a more traditional high-grain diet. However, there are no data on the long-term effects of feeding rations containing over 7-10% fat to horses. It is currently recommended to limit the total fat intake to 10% or less. " "So, the answer is that yes, fat is safe to feed if done so within certain parameters. Start adding fat slowly to the diet to avoid digestive upset. Increase vitamin E when increasing fat. Use vegetable sources and not animal sources. Beware of adding too much, even of a good thing".
  11. Quest Wormer

    Deworming Drugs by: Richard D. Mitchell, DVM Quest is an effective dewormer when used as directed. It has a broad spectrum of activity, killing the majority of commonly encountered internal parasites, including the sometimes difficult small strongyles. As with some other highly effective dewormers, if the horse has a large parasite burden, killing large numbers of parasites might produce some irritation or inflammation in the intestinal wall in response to the dead parasite stages that are killed off. This might in turn cause some abdominal discomfort. If your horse has been on a reasonably good parasite program, it is unlikely that this product will do anything other than enhance his health by reducing his parasite burden. This product is very effective when used with other products, such as Strongid C, to virtually eliminate parasite loads.[/b]
  12. How Do You Upload Pictures?

    I have been trying to upload pictures and when its done, I cant find them. How do I get them to upload to my photo album? Thank you!
  13. Spring Day Pics

    Beautiful pictures. Looks like alot of fun! I cant wait for our snow to go away!
  14. My 4yr Old Drinks Tons Of Water

    Horses drink anywhere from 10 to 20 gallons of water a day. If the horse stands there licking the salt block all day she will drink more water, this is good, it helps clean out the excess salt the horse dont need. I wouldnt worry about all the water the horse is drinking. If the horses wasnt drinking water, then you would have something to worry about. Water helps keep the intestines working properly.
  15. How often deworming yearlings?

    Every 60 days, because: "The parasite population in immature animals are often quite different than those found in adults." "Some kinds of worms, in fact, prefer young horses so strongly that they're almost never found in equines past a certain age." "Infections with threadworms, roundworms, and pinworms, for example, are found almost exclusively in horses less than 6 months, 18 months, and 24 months old." "Because of the age distrubution of these worms, parasite control recommendations for immature animals are necessarily different than those followed for adults." "The first treatment should be given when the foal is approximately 60 days of age. Then treatments should be administered at 60 day intervals." "Delaying treatment for intervals longer than 70 days could allow ascarids to mature and contaminate the environment with eggs. Roundworm eggs can survive for a decade or longer, so one break in protocol can have very long lasting consequences with ascarids. Bi-monthly treatments should continue until the horse acquire immunity at 15-18 months of age".